[00:45.74]Page 2 and 3
[00:48.43]THE YOUNG GREEN CONSUMER GUIDE
[00:51.51]Review by Tony Ma
[00:54.62]This book says that our world is in danger
[00:59.32]It is vital that we do something to save the earth
[01:04.21]First of all,what are the threats to our environment?
[01:09.72]The Greenhouse Effect The writers ask us to
[01:16.72]"imagine the earth inside a kind of greenhouse
[01:21.71]with the atmosphere around it acting like the glass,
[01:27.22]letting sunlight in while keeping much of the warmth from get-ting out
[01:34.01]The atmosphere is essential to all liv-ing things
[01:39.42]Without it,the earth would be as cold and lifeless
[01:44.72]as the surface of the moon".
[01:47.91]"The trouble is that our atmosphere is changing
[01:53.01]because we are pollut-ing it with chemicals
[01:56.40]- in the form of gases and it is keeping in too much heat!
[02:03.30]These gases, mainly carbon dioxide (CO2),
[02:09.59]are produced by burn-ing fuels such as petrol.
[02:14.69]The Greenhouse Effect may cause the level of the sea
[02:19.86]to rise and drown cities and even whole countries.
[02:26.65]Damage to the ozone layer
[02:29.76]The writers tell us that "ozone is a gas
[02:35.64]which occurs 20-50 km above the ground.
[02:41.33]It forms an essential protective layer around the earth
[02:47.24]Without it,the sun would burn us up."
[02:51.91]We are making holes in the ozone layer mainly by using chemicals called CFCs
[03:01.50]We use these in fridges and spray cans
[03:06.70]and to make plastic items such as fast food boxes.
[03:13.41]Destruction of the rain forests
[03:17.20]The burning and cut-ting down of trees
[03:21.01]is making the Greenhouse Effect worse
[03:25.30]because trees take in CO2.
[03:29.89]It also causes erosion of the soil and flooding,
[03:35.67]as well as destroying the people and animals
[03:40.45]who make the forests their home.
[03:44.05]Bad habits Many of our habits cause pollution
[03:50.95]especially our habit of using things once and then throwing them away
[03:58.76]This creates massive mountains of rubbish.
[04:03.64]We do not know what to do with the rubbish
[04:07.72]and it pollutes our land and sea.
[04:12.00]For example, seven billion drink cans
[04:17.59]are thrown away in Britain each year.
[04:21.49]That is enough to reach from the earth to the moon.
[04:25.77]How can we save the earth?
[04:29.56]The book"s idea is that we should become green consumers.
[04:36.14]That is, we should only buy and use things
[04:41.73]that do not damage the environment
[04:45.34]And we should buy only from companies
[04:50.32]that do not damage the environment either.
[04:56.20]Page 5 and 6
[04:59.10]Understanding the sequence of events
[05:02.60]Listen to the five short stories on the recording.
[05:07.41]For each story, look at the three pictures below and on page 6
[05:14.59]The pictures are in the wrong order.
[05:18.28]You must write 1, 2 and 3 to show the correct order
[05:24.78]in which the events happened.
[08:50.91]SPEAKING Page10 and 11
[08:54.91]A Talk time Preferences and reasons
[09:01.60]When we express a pre-ference for something,
[09:06.38]we say we like it bet-ter than something else.
[09:10.58]Sometimes we give a reason why we prefer it.
[09:17.79]Arthur is in a res-taurant with Pansy.
[09:22.08]He is ordering some food and drinks.
[09:25.99]Read their conversa-tion and answer the questions.
[09:31.19]Then work in pairs to practise the conversa-tion.
[09:36.08]Let"s have a drink,Pansy.They"ve got Coke milk, shakes, tea and coffee.
[09:44.59]Which would you prefer?
[09:43.59]I"d prefer a Coke.What about you?
[09:47.59]I"m going to have a hot coffee,
[09:50.70]I need something to warm me up. Waiter!
[09:56.29]One Coke and one coffee, please.
[09:59.79]MORE PRACTICE Page 15
[10:06.66]Pollution means contaminating the Earth"s environment
[10:12.54]with materials that harm people"s health
[10:17.32]and lower their quality of life.
[10:19.72]Pollution can also harm animals and plants.
[10:24.03]There are many different forms of pollution.
[10:27.92]The three major groups are air pollution,
[10:32.23]land pollution and water pollution.
[10:36.41]Air pollution comes from many different sources
[10:40.99]not all of them are man-made.
[10:44.88]For example, dust storms in deserts
[10:49.47]and the smoke from forest fires are natural sources of air pollution.
[10:55.87]In urban areas, dirty air is more noticeable
[11:01.47]because of the fumes from traffic and the waste from factories
[11:07.66]Air pollution can affect humans by caus-ing sore eyes
[11:14.34]and respiratory problems,
[11:17.35]especially in children and the elderly.
[11:21.76]Land pollution is caused by the deposit of solid waste
[11:28.35](e.g., cans, bottles,plastic, etc.)
[11:34.64]that cannot be broken down quickly or at all.
[11:39.24]Land pollution can affect the lives of animals and plants
[11:45.12]and it makes the en-vironment look very bad.
[11:49.50]Recycling and reusing materials
[11:54.10]can help reduce the amount of land pollution.
[11:58.41]Other methods include landfill
[12:02.59]using the rubbish to make new land -
[12:06.48]and burning the rubbish
[12:09.28]but these two methods can pollute the water and air.
[12:15.29]Water pollution re-sults when substances that are released into lakes
[12:23.39]rivers, oceans,etc. stay in the water or build up at the bottom.
[12:30.99]This form of pollution may also begin in the air if the air is polluted
[12:37.88]and causes acid rain.
[12:41.17]When it rains,the rain will then pollute the water in lakes, rivers oceans, etc.
[12:48.59]Soil erosion is one example of natural water pollution
[12:55.18]and can cause problems if the soil blocks the flow of water
[13:01.68]and leads to flooding.
[13:03.98]Pollution from human sources includes chemicals,
[13:09.18]pesticids,waste from factories and human sewage.